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Scientific Law Vs Legal Law

A scientific theory is a well-reasoned explanation of an aspect of the natural world, based on a set of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experimentation. Such fact-based theories are not “assumptions,” but reliable accounts of the real world. The theory of biological evolution is more than just a “theory.” This is as factual an explanation of the universe as the atomic theory of matter (which says that everything is made of atoms) or the germ theory of disease (which says that many diseases are caused by germs). Our understanding of gravity is still a work in progress. But the phenomenon of gravity, like evolution, is an accepted fact. Just because an idea becomes law doesn`t mean it can`t be changed by scientific research in the future. The use of the word “law” by laymen and scientists differs. When most people talk about a law, they mean something absolute. A scientific law is much more flexible. It may have exceptions, turn out to be false or evolve over time, according to the University of California.

Many scientific laws can be reduced to a mathematical equation. For example, Newton`s law of universal gravity states: A scientific law is a basic principle, a generalization, a regularity, or a rule universally valid under certain conditions. Laws are fact-based or mathematically developed to explain and predict individual events or circumstances (Carey, 1994; Carnap, 1966; Mayer, 1988). A law can usually be formulated in the form of one or more statements or equations in order to be able to predict the outcome of an experiment. The laws differ from the assumptions and assumptions proposed during the scientific process before and during validation by experiment and observation. Assumptions and assumptions are not laws because they have not been verified to the same extent, although they may lead to the formulation of laws. Laws are narrower than scientific theories, which may include one or more laws. [3] Science distinguishes a law or theory from facts. [4] To characterize a law as factual is ambiguous, exaggerated or ambiguous. [5] The nature of scientific laws has been much debated in philosophy, but essentially scientific laws are simply empirical conclusions obtained by scientific methods; They should not be burdened with ontological obligations or statements of logical absolutes. The distinction between natural law in the political-legal sense and natural law or physical law in the scientific sense is modern, both terms also derive from physis, the Greek word (translated into Latin as natura) for nature. [24] The difference between scientific laws and scientific facts is somewhat more difficult to define, although the definition is important.

The facts are simple and fundamental observations that have proven to be true. Laws are generalized observations about a relationship between two or more things in the natural world. The law may be based on facts and tested hypotheses, according to NASA. Even false theories have their value. Discredited alchemy has been the cradle of modern chemistry, and medicine has made great strides long before we understand the role of bacteria and viruses. However, better theories often lead to exciting new discoveries that were unimaginable under the old way of thinking. Nor should we assume that all of our current scientific theories will stand the test of time. A single unexpected outcome is enough to challenge the status quo. However, susceptibility to a potentially better explanation does not weaken a current scientific theory. Instead, it protects science from becoming an undisputed dogma. Scientific laws do not attempt to explain “why” the observed event occurs, but only that the event occurs again and again in the same way.

The explanation of how a phenomenon works is a scientific theory. A scientific law and a scientific theory are not the same thing – a theory does not become a law or vice versa. Laws and theories are based on empirical data and are accepted by many scientists or most scientists in the discipline concerned. A law in science is a generalized rule for explaining a set of observations in the form of a verbal or mathematical utterance. Scientific laws (also called laws of nature) involve cause and effect between observed elements and must always apply under the same conditions. To be a scientific law, a statement must describe an aspect of the universe and be based on repeated experimental evidence. Scientific laws can be expressed in words, but many are expressed as mathematical equations. Scientific laws summarize the results of experiments or observations, usually in a certain field of application. In general, the accuracy of a law does not change when a new theory of the relevant phenomenon is developed, but the scope of the law, since the mathematics or the statement that the law represents does not change. As with other types of scientific knowledge, scientific laws do not express absolute certainty, as do mathematical theorems or identities.

A scientific law may be contradicted, restricted or extended by future observations. “Assumptions, theories and laws are like apples, oranges and kumquats: you can`t become another, no matter how much fertilizer and water is offered,” according to the University of California. A hypothesis is a limited explanation of a phenomenon; A scientific theory is a thorough explanation of the observed phenomenon. A law is a statement about an observed phenomenon or unifying concept, according to Kennesaw State University. A belief is a statement that is not scientifically provable. Beliefs may or may not be wrong; They are just outside the realm of science to explore them. The observation and proof of underlying laws in nature dates back to prehistoric times – the recognition of cause-and-effect relationships implicitly acknowledges the existence of natural laws. However, the recognition of such laws as independent scientific laws in themselves was limited by their involvement in animism and by attributing many effects that have no obvious causes – such as physical phenomena – to the actions of gods, spirits, supernatural beings, etc. Observation and speculation about nature were closely related to metaphysics and morality. Another example of the influence of mathematics on scientific law is that of probability.

“My favorite scientific law is that we live in a probabilistic, not deterministic, world. For large numbers, probability always works. The house always wins,” said Dr. Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, a professor at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. “We can calculate the probability of an event and determine our confidence from our estimate, but there is always a trade-off between accuracy and safety. This is called the confidence interval. For example, we can be 95% sure that what we`re trying to estimate is within a certain range, or we can be more sure, let`s say 99% sure, that it`s within a wider range. Just like in life in general, we have to accept that there is a compromise. Carey, S. S. (1994). A beginner`s guide to the scientific method.

Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co. A common misconception is that scientific theories are rudimentary ideas that eventually move into scientific laws when enough data and evidence has been collected. A theory does not turn into a scientific law with the accumulation of new or better evidence. Remember, theories are explanations and laws are patterns that we see in large amounts of data that are often written as equations. A theory will always remain a theory; A law will always remain a law. In general, a scientific law is the description of an observed phenomenon. It does not explain why the phenomenon exists or what causes it. The explanation of a phenomenon is called a scientific theory. It is a misconception that theories become laws with enough research. Scientific laws are usually conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years that have been widely accepted in the scientific community.